王安石与道教

王安石的思想深受道家思想的影响,尤其是王安石最吸引的道家经典《老子》和《庄子》。 宋代晁公吾评价:“介甫一生最喜爱《老子》,因而以最大的敬意诠释它。” 王安石着有《老子》一书,现已失传。 近代学者荣昭祖根据失传文献编撰了《老子》。 王安石《老子注》。 此外,王安石还在各种文学形式中阐述了老子思想。 这方面的章节有《老子》、《复王慎复》、《孙政序》、《礼乐论》等。王安石研究《庄子》的主要著作有《复陈轸书》 ”、《复王慎复书》、《九变赏罚》等。还有一些诗也涉及庄子的思想。 王安石对《老子》、《庄子》的思想其实并不是一成不变的。 随着他的哲学思想以维新变法为界的演变,王安石的老子学、庄子学也发生了一些明显的变化。 如果我们把它看作一个不变的整体,它的思想矛盾就很难理解。 目前学术界多从一个不变的整体来研究王安石与《老子》、《庄子》的关系,难免解释不通。 鉴于此,笔者从王安石思想演变的角度对此进行重新梳理,以期更接近王安石与道家关系的现实。

维新之前,王安石的最高本体论是儒家思想,他排斥佛教和道教的本体论。 后期王安石认识了佛道本体论。 虽然他在前期和后期都用过“静而不动”、“无念无为”等词语,但前期的静与不动是儒家天命观念的表现,而不是空虚与无为的表现。佛教、道教毫无意义。 后期,沉默、不动、无思成为儒释道本体论的共同特征。 也就是说,道家本体论的特点是沉默、不动、无思,而不是儒家命运本质的体现。

王安石早年所写的《复陈知书》信中,认为老、庄之说并不全合于道。 因此,有志于道的人,应该不遗余力地学习儒家圣人的教义,以便了解圣人之道的广度和深度。 王安石不仅从“不皆合经”的思想角度贬低老、庄,而且以不仔细读两书的方式表明了他对老、庄的态度,即儒家圣人的书优先读,而儒家圣人的书优先读,强调,而老庄的书只能闲暇时阅读。 可见,年轻时的王安石对老庄之书也只是大致了解,其态度与一般儒家思想家排斥老庄的态度是一样的。 但王安石仍然肯定庄子“懂得生与命的异同,不以生死祸福福祸累心”。 这就是说,老子、庄子与圣人之道相似,心无负担。 生命和命运是分开的。 性与自定的内在因素有关,而命则与不自定的外在因素有关。 命运不是自己决定的,所以不能强求。 必须采取因势利导的态度。 例如,庄子对待妻子之死的态度就是一种顺其自然的态度。 在王安石看来,他的意思是不让自己的心承受生死的福祸。 这种超然的生死态度,与孟子的生命辨论有异曲同工之妙。

王安石在《复王慎复书》中说:“慎复曰:‘惟自正,不求正,方能使万物正’。” 自以为是,就没有办法治理别人。 如果没有办法治理别人,那就是老庄的行为。 所谓伟人,怎么可能是老庄的行为呢? 不求正义而自正的人是错误的; 修正自己并期待正确的事情是不对的。 不求正事而自正,是不义; 修正自我并期望正确的事情是不正义的。 这才叫伟人,怎么会在乎不义的命运呢? 扬子曰:“先治己而后治人,谓之大器。” 扬子所说的大器,与孟子所说的大人是相似的。 王安石在信中批评了老庄的不作为。王安石认为,他一个人不能照顾自己。 ,但首先应该使自己正确,并有意识地“使事情对我有利,然后我才能使它们正确,而不是使它们自己正确。”前者和后者的区别在于:“接受适合我的东西”意思是觉醒,而“为自己做事”则意味着被动接受。可见王安石采用开明、豁达的教育方式,以理性和情感来教育学生。如果这句话理解为“既成之事,则天下之利”,然后王安石执行了他认为正确的决定,并没有刻意追求结果。因为这些不是由自我决定的,而是与外界因素有关,做你应该做的事,无论结果如何,采取更加宽容和随和的态度。 这种态度无疑是灵活的、理性的。 但无论怎样,我们都不能像老庄一样,孤身一人,而应该“把事情做好,然后就对了”。 此时,王安石对老、庄的贬抑态度十分明显,并对杨雄的相关思想做出了积极的评价。 这与后来的《本性》中对杨雄的批判态度不同,说明王安石的思想与写这封信时治平年间的晚年思想有很大不同。 这一时期他对老庄的态度总体上是排斥的态度,而非对道本体的认同,只是批评其无为精神。 在这封信中我们看不到王安石对老庄思想的本体论认可,这也与他后来对老庄本体论的接受有很大不同。

在王安石学术活动的早期,即维新之前,王安石对老子的论述只能在上述两处找到,并与庄子一起受到批评。 可见,在学术活动初期,王安石的道家思想将老、庄视为一个整体,并没有对他们的思想进行详细、差异化的分析。 他把精力集中在阅读儒家经典和研究佛道书籍上。 只是简单的涉猎。 维新变法后,王安石对老子进行了专题研究。 他不但注释《老子》,还写文章分别阐述老子思想。

首先值得一提的是王安石的杂文《老子》。 据李志良先生认为,这篇文章是元丰六年王安石退守金陵时写的。 这其实与蔡尚祥《王景公年鉴》中的观点是一致的。 王安石在这篇杂文中批评了老子思想的无为,但认为老子无为的根源在于“生于自然,故不人力而万物能生”。 这种无为虽然是宇宙论上的,但无疑也包含着对老子本体论意义的认可。 道家的虚无观不仅是万物生成的源泉,具有宇宙论的含义,而且是万物的基础,因此也具有本体论的含义。 这种认识是以前不存在的,这说明王安石的道教思想发生了质的变化,从以前的排斥到和解,所以可以说他的思想是以变法为边界演变的。 这一点在前面的章节中已经讨论过,这里不再赘述。 也有学者认为这篇文章是维新之前写的。 可以从两个方面来反驳。 首先,如果这篇文章放在早期,就会与王安石早期排斥老庄本体论的态度相冲突,所以不能写在同一时期。 其次,如果将王安石的《老子》与《洪范传》、《志异论》进行比较,可以发现他们的思想是相当一致的。 后两篇杂文是维新以后写的,所以是一样的。 思想上的《老子》只能在维新之后才能写成。

弄清楚了《老子》的成书时期,我们对王安石早晚期思想以及后期道家思想的差异就有了比较清晰的认识。 王安石后期思想虽然从世俗的角度批判道教和佛教,但他承认佛道的本体论。 运用这一思想框架来理解变法期间和变法后王安石的佛道思想,可以得到较为圆满的解释。 也就是说,王安石虽然仍然对佛道思想持批判态度,但他接受了佛道的本体论。 基于此,我们应该对佛教采取完全开放的态度,不再因为佛教是外道而对佛教遮遮掩掩。 他的《老子》注释等著作也是在这种思想背景下写成的,他也因这种指导思想而全身心投入到佛教经典的研究和注释中。

下面笔者根据王安石的思想对当前学术界的一些观点进行批判。 在《王安石学派与道家的儒家思想》一文中,孔令洪认为王安石“九变而赏罚可言”的思想来自于庄子的《天道》,这当然是没问题。 因为王安石的写作思想和词汇都取自这篇文章。 不过,作者并没有指出两篇文章之间的重要区别。 首先,九变中的九个环节在王安石那里有从属关系,即下一类属于上一类。 但庄子的九范畴是并列关系,并不属于同一范畴。 它们的重要性也逐渐降低。 王安石的相关原文是:“一切必如其所是而后存,是天也;一切不能不如其所是”。 道; 道属于我,就是德; 有德的人,就是仁;有德的人,就是仁;有德的人,就是仁。 爱得恰当的人就是正义的。 仁有先后,义有上下,谓之分; 先不善后,下不侵上,即是护之。”《天道》中的相关原文是:“故古之先明道者,”明白了,道德就排在第二位; ” 显然,庄子的天与道德,仁义是第二位的,不是一种从属关系,而是一种递减关系。庄子的这句话出自老子,老子说:“上德”不是有德,因为有德; 下德不为德,故不为德。 上德是无为而无想; 下德是无为而有思。 上德是无为而有思。 仁者无思而行; 上义之后是思想; 上义之后是义;上义之后是义。 义之后是礼。 。 夫之礼,忠信之薄,乃乱之始也。 前知是道之辉煌,却是愚昧之始。 所以,真正的男人应该在浓处,而不在淡处; 这两者不是一个范畴,因为道家道德与儒家仁义明显不同。庄子把天德放在第一位,仁义放在第二位。他的立场是很明确的。王安石的天德仁论“天”和“义”都属于儒家思想的范畴,本质上是相同的,即“天”和“德”都是仁义意义上的“天”和“道德”,其内涵都是仁义性质的。 《庄子》中的天与道德、仁义的关系并非如此,因此,王安石所讨论的天、道德与仁义的关系,并不是庄子意义上的天、道德与仁义的关系。王安石在这篇文章中只是借用了庄子的文笔,他在《九变赏罚可议》中对庄子的赞扬,只是基于他对五变、九变的灵活举措,并不是因为他对《九变》中对道的认识。本体论意义。 从他对“道过于潦草而不至善”的批评中可以看出,王安石仍然对庄子本体论意义上的道进行批判,这是王安石早期学术活动的一贯态度。

王安石在本文的表现形式上虽然借用了庄子的说法,但本质上与韩愈在《元道》中的思想是一样的。 韩愈说:“满爱者谓之仁,仁义者谓之义,由之而来者谓之道,自足而不待人者谓之德。仁义是名、道、德。” ”显然,在韩愈看来,儒家道德与仁义有关,与佛教道德不同。 韩愈的仁义道德之说是一体的,王安石的观点也是如此。 道教的道德和仁慈与此不同。 它崇尚道家道德,贬低儒家仁义。

在这篇文章中,王安石仍然坚持儒家道德,但不接受道家道德。 这与《老子》仅仅批判其无用的逃避态度、赞同道家无为之理有明显的区别。 它是不同时期思想的反映。 在将王安石的著作与庄子的思想进行比较时,如果不加以区分,就无法对王安石的思想做出正确的归属,也就难以做出适当的评价。

王安石在《老子·日学四十八》中解释时说:“日学,为道,日日必损,屡损,以致无为。无为。” ,一切都会完成。” 。 道者,竭其性也。 性于事物之理,则世间一切理皆不可能,故曰“日增”。 世间之理应守于虚无,故曰“日亏”。 耗尽理智,耗尽本性,必须恢复生命,故曰“屡遭损害,以致无为”,也叫生命恢复。 然而,生命并不需要急于恢复,必须在消失之后才能恢复,然后才恢复生命,所以说“失去又损坏到无能为力”。 然而,无为并不等于无为,故曰‘无为而无为’。”王安石在这里的解释可以说与上面提到的《老子》文章的思想完全一致。道的根本,万物生成的源泉。道散于万物,是万物之理。穷尽性,不仅是优化万物的理,而且因为这个理也来自于道,必须回归无为,才能成全本性;能“一而再再而三”,就能“终其一生”。按照穷尽万物的道理,万事皆可做,所以曰“日增”;立足于回归道,曰“日增”。显然,王安石是从“无为”的思想框架来阐述《老子》中的这段话的。道的根本,行是道的终结。 它认识到道教的道本体论与其后来的道教思想是一致的。 我们还可以看到,王安石正在试图将《周易·说卦》中“穷其性命”的思想与老子思想调和起来。 在王安石看来,这里的“性”的本体意义与“命”是一致的,与《老子》中本体意义的“无为”是一样的,而这种本体的特征就是“无为”。 这也是王安石在承认佛道本体论的前提下必然得出的结论。

后期王安石的生命生命论基本综合了儒释道思想来论述,即生命生命与最高本体论“道”有关。 道在万物中表现为自然,只有人类才能认识到这种自然。 如果将此性悟到“无为”的层次,那就是“性”的最高层次,“缘”了。 这种生命与道相一致、有层次的思想与苏轼相似。 后期王安石认为性与生命的特征是“虚无”,儒、释、道的道本体论也具有同样的特征。 正是从这一点上,他将儒、释、道三教的道本体论融为一体,认为它们是相通的。 这在他的改革之前是不可想象的。 当时的王安石严守儒家立场,极力防止儒家思想受到佛道本体论的侵蚀。 然而,一些学者在讨论王安石人性论时,却将前后思想混杂在一起,从而无法反映王安石思想的发展和前后时期的不同特征。 例如,孔令洪在阐述王安石《老子四十八增学》的解释后,还引用了《中庸》一文来解释王安石的性情理论。 显然,《中庸》是王安石的早期著作,其中的生命、生命之说完全是从儒家的立场来阐述的,并没有引入佛教、道教的资源。 因此,将这两类体现不同思想的材料混杂在一起,并不能客观、真实地反映王安石人生命运论的实际情况。 我们具体分析一下王安石《性情》中的生命道德论,就可以看出它与后来的生命道德论的区别。 王安石在文中说:“性是一物,世上有论者云‘性善,情恶’,但只知性之名,不知性之实。喜、怒。”悲喜善恶欲尚未生起,性是从外在心里存在的;喜怒哀乐善恶欲是外在表现出来的,见于内心。行,即情。性是情之本,情是用性,故曰一也。” 在此,王安石认为,性有善恶,故情有善恶。 所以,人之所以善恶,全在于后天的“教养”,即“习惯”。 善恶之性是后天获得的,但本性却是善的。 王安石早期的人性论认为,人性本善,但后天性有善恶之分。 显然,这种人性论的精神属于儒家思想,并不包含佛道思想的成分。 因此,将本文与老子注释结合起来,是无法正确分析王安石人性论的特点的。

同时,孔令洪将《本性》一文与《质》一文放在一起讨论,对王安石思想的阶段性特征重视不够。 王安石在《本性》中说:“太极是五行的本源,五行不是太极。性是五常的太极,五常不能称为性。这是我的原因。”我和韩子不一样。” ……孟子说性善,荀子说性恶。 太极生五行,而生利害,但太极不能表利害。 性生于情,有情则善恶而生,性不能为善。 脏话。 这就是我与两位弟子不同的原因……而弟子们所说的,都是我所谓的情志、习气,而不是本性。”本文将性比作太极,将武昌比作五行,认为五行要素 不能描述为太极,就像五常不能描述性一样,说明性和太极一样,是一个更高层次的概念。五常可以具体到仁、义、礼、智、信但性不能这样。从善恶的角度来看,情有善有恶,就像五行有有利有害一样,但性没有善恶之分,就像太极无益无害一样。王安石在这篇文章中反复论证,无非是说明性与情不同,属于更高层次的概念,无善无恶,因此,该文的人性观与人性观完全不同。 《人性》中指出,具有本体意义的人性是善的,而后天性则有善恶之分。 这显然不是同时期思想的反映。 按照《本性》中人性论的观点,文末“伏羲写《易》,后世圣人之言,非世间最精炼、最灵性”。这能比吗?孔子写了《春秋》,那么幽、夏就不能表达一个字。伏羲的智慧不能与孔子的智慧相比,尽管幽、夏的力量无法比拟。何况,所谓的傻子,就是这样的。” 而《红范传》与《红范传》《志异论》中的相关句子对比可见,它们在措辞和思想上都十分接近。 因此,可以判断这部作品是王安石变法之后写成的。

因此,我们在研究王安石的人性思想时,应该考虑到上述作品属于不同时期。 由于他思想的演变,他不同时期作品的思想可能有很大不同。

以上主要以王安石的老子研究来说明王安石前期和后期思想的演变。 当然,由于王安石在讨论老子时经常将老子和庄子并列在一起,所以他不能完全分开讨论。 但王安石的庄子研究并不局限于与老子并论,也有单独的论述。 因此,我们有必要从庄子研究中进一步探讨王安石的道家思想。 除王安石与老子、庄子并列论庄外,其他单独论庄的著作还有《庄子》第一、二篇,以及《陶振来显德》、《八杂诗》、《庄子》等诗。 《无英》、《绝句》第五部、绝句八、《圣人总是如何给予?》等。 在此基础上,下文将进一步探讨王安石的庄子研究及其前后整体思想的联系。

由于王安石的《庄子一》是一部简明的庄子学杂论,其中披露的信息量非常大,所以笔者在此引用全文以供分析之用。 他的文章写道:“世间对庄子众说纷纭,而研究儒家的人却说:‘庄子之书,意在诽谤孔子,以信其异教,焚其书废其弟子。功绩还不足以讨论。” ’学儒者如此,好庄子之道者曰:‘庄子之德,在于不以物扰其忧,而能信其道。 他并非无知仁义,认为仁义太小,不足以践行自己; 不懂礼乐,就以为礼乐太薄弱,不足以改造世界。 故老子曰:“道失则德矣,道失则德矣”。 德失了,仁就会随之而来; 仁失则义随之; 失了义,礼就会随之而来。” 由此可见,庄子在仁义礼乐上并非无能。 其义也; 以为仁、义、礼、乐为道之终,故薄而阴。 儒家之言虽好,但不总求庄子之意。 喜欢庄子的话的人一定会读庄子的书,但这并不是庄子的本意。 历代君王的盛世,到了庄子时代,已经耗尽了。 世俗风俗尽是欺诳欺人,纯朴四散。 天下士大夫虽不懂得贵己轻物之道。 于是他就抛弃了礼义的礼仪,在争得失的时候,追求利益而不感到羞辱,死去而不感到怨恨。 渐渐地,他沉迷其中,陷入万劫不复的地步。 庄子病了,他思考自己所说的话。 纠正世间的缺点,使之恢复正气。 他忧虑过度,认为仁、义、礼、乐不足以正,所以同意是非,与他人结盟,以利害为利。 这就是他纠正世界缺点的原因。 这是正确的。 不但我的话出错了,还怕来世我说的都是真的,却没有看到天地的清净和古人的通理。 于是我伤了心,写了最后一章来解释自己。 章曰:《诗》“书”指道教,“书”指道教,《礼记》指道教,《周易》指道教,《殷》、《春秋》指道教。 ”从这个角度来看,庄子难道不知道圣人吗?什么?他还说:“比如耳朵、眼睛、鼻子、嘴巴,各有其用,但不能互相沟通。 就如百家之术,各有所长,时而有用。”用,是了解圣人之道,皆在那里,不在此,等等。既然我列出了他的书。宋林、神道、墨斋、老聃的弟子中,都是读书人,不应该读同一首曲子,写出来是因为想明白我的话有一定作用,并不是完整的。道之云。然而,庄子岂不是不顾世间之弊而刻意保存圣人之道吗?伯益之清,柳下惠之和,皆是世间之正。庄子以心为弟子。两圣人。然庄子之言,必为异端。比较,即指修正过当,修正过头,欲正,修正过头,则枉然。庄子又说:“墨子的心是正的,而墨子的行为是错误的。”其行为秉承庄子之心,与墨子有何不同? 以后读庄子的人,如果善于读庄子,就可以说是善于读书,而不是因为它是书。 这也是庄子的愿望。 后世读其书者亦然。 今天的读者,手里拿着庄188,侮辱我的儒家思想,说:“庄子之道,大到了儒家所不能理解的地步。” 他们不知道什么意思,却视那些与儒家不同的人为高尚。 老公伤心了!”

王安石的讨论首先是从儒家与庄子之争开始的。 双方对庄子的评论都不满意。 结论是,他们没有理解《庄子》所蕴含的深刻意义,即“崇儒者”的话是好的,但他们没有寻求庄子的意义。 Those who like Zhuangzi’s words will definitely read Zhuangzi’s books, but they are not seeking Zhuangzi’s meaning.”

Wang Anshi believes that the content and intention of Zhuangzi’s teachings are “the same right and wrong, the same self and others, the same interests and harms, and then the heart is satisfied. This is the reason why it corrects the shortcomings of the world.” Therefore, we should treat and evaluate Zhuangzi’s teachings under the historical conditions at that time. He wants to correct the shortcomings of the world. Because the shortcomings of the world are too deep, he must come up with a method beyond the conventional, and this method is “the same right and wrong, the same self, the same benefit and harm.” Zhuangzi actually hoped to show the purity of heaven and earth and the general characteristics of the ancients to future generations. Therefore, he explained his own views in the last chapter to express his views on the current status of the entire theory at that time. At the same time, he also indirectly showed the good intentions and special background of his own theory. Wang Anshi believes that the correct view of Zhuangzi should be: “Those who read Zhuangzi in the future can be said to be good readers if they are good at being a book. If they do not say it is a book, they can be said to be good at reading. This is what Zhuangzi wants for future generations to read his books.” Ye.” In other words, Zhuangzi wanted to correct the shortcomings of the world, so the intention and starting point of his theory are worthy of recognition. However, since it is said that it is an overcorrection, the result obtained is still an error rather than a positive one. Therefore, it is necessary to criticize it. Of course, Wang Anshi’s criticism of Zhuangzi’s theory here is mainly based on his “identity of right and wrong, equality of self and interests,” rather than a complete negation of Zhuangzi’s theory. This can also be seen from “However, Zhuangzi’s words have to be compared with heresy”.

From Wang Anshi’s discussion in this article, we cannot see where he affirms Zhuangzi’s theory, so it seems that it has little connection with the evolution of Wang Anshi’s thoughts before and after. However, the sympathetic attitude adopted by this article towards Zhuangzi’s teachings reveals the author’s conciliatory academic tendency. From this point of view, Wang Anshi’s miscellany should also belong to the period when he adopted a harmonious academic attitude towards Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and to the later stage of his thought.

Wang Anshi wrote in one of “Eight Miscellaneous Odes”: “All things are one, and nine states are one family. Autumn is not small, and being outside is not distant. I don’t know longevity and youth, and I don’t know poverty and luxury. Forgetting the heart is the way to achieve enlightenment. , the Tao does not go away from the chaos. Looking at it closely, Yao and Shun are also mud and sand. Zhuang Zhou said this, and the world thought it was a boast.” This is a complete interpretation of Zhuangzi’s thoughts, in which “forgetting the mind to obtain the Tao” is integrated with Buddhism Thoughts of Tao. In the fifth of “Nine Quatrains”, Wang Anshi wrote: “When everything is about to mature, the world is talking and laughing. There is no need to calculate the gains and losses of chickens and insects, Peng Xiaoyao knows each.” The poem contains Zhuangzi’s view of absolute freedom and freedom. Guo Xiang affirmed the theory of relative freedom, and his recognition of this thought was completely based on the Taoist ideological stance, which showed Wang Anshi’s appreciation of Taoist thought. This ideological attitude is different from Wang Anshi’s early rejection of Taoist thought, which shows that the poems with this kind of thought were written in the later period.

In his later period, Wang Anshi showed an obsession with the silent and motionless nature of Buddhism and Taoism, so he paid great attention to cultivating a peaceful mind that was not disturbed by the outside world. This ideological tendency already has a strong color of Buddhist and Taoist thoughts. In the poem “Tao Zhen’s Vegetable Showing Virtue”, Wang Anshi wrote: “There are so many places to grow vegetables in the south of the Yangtze River, where are the purple mustard and green cogongrass?” Tao Sheng’s paintings are all good, and one painting is often worth a hundred golds. The old garden in Beishan is not admired. So, we just guard the wilderness and thorns. The pottery nourishes the eyes and the canals nourish the belly, and everyone uses their strengths to serve as objects.” Wang Anshi believes that if we are attached to objects, we will inevitably not be able to achieve the state of complete freedom of the mind. In fact, in a certain sense Controlled by this thing. Wang Anshi’s thought is relatively close to Su Shi’s thought that he cannot pay attention to things, but can only imply things.

Out of identification with the ontology of Taoism, Wang Anshi in the later period paid special attention to the cultivation method of Taoism’s “mind fasting”. Because fasting is to eliminate the influence of sorrow, joy, desire and evil on oneself, so that the mind is in a state of emptiness and tranquility. This state of emptiness and tranquility is not far from the silent and motionless essence, and is therefore conducive to realizing this essence. Regarding the explanation of “Wang Zhai’s Three Moves in a Day” in “The Rites of Zhou·Tianguan·Shanfu”, Wang Anshi said: “Confucius’ Zhai must change food to nourish his body. Wang Zhai’s three moves in a day are consistent with changing food. .Confucius’s fasting means not to stay indoors, not to listen to music, not to drink alcohol, and not to eat meat. If you are mourning, you will not see it; if you do not wear it (juān), you will not see it. Don’t let sorrow, joy, or desire harm your heart. Furthermore, by removing objects that can dull one’s will and mind, and nourishing one’s energy, one can become extremely shrewd, and then one can surrender to the gods. However, this special sacrificial fast is not yet as good as the fast of one’s heart. The so-called heart Fasting is a way for a sage to express his virtues through gods. Therefore, his sorrows, pleasures, and evil desires cannot be obtained, so what else can he do? Although knowing the fasting of sacrifices, it is also a fasting of the heart. Concubine Ji Yan.” Commenting on this paragraph, King Taiyue of the Qing Dynasty said: “‘However, this special sacrificial fast is not as good as the husband’s heart fast.’ Case: The meaning of the heart fast is originally Zhuangzi; but Zhuangzi regarded not drinking alcohol and eating meat as a sacrifice Zhizhai has different meanings from the Zhai of Zhou Guan’s “three fasts on the day”. Wang An Shigai borrowed it.” Wang Taiyue’s comment is correct. Wang Anshi also said: “Confucius’ Zhai must change food to nourish his body. Wang Zhai three times a day is consistent with changing food.” This means that the king’s sacrificial fast is different from Confucius’s sacrificial fast. , the king may listen to music, drink wine, and eat meat. However, Wang Zhai agrees with Confucius that Wang Zhai’s diet can nourish the body and mind, that is, Wang Zhai and Confucius changed their diet for the same purpose. Wang Anshi’s exegesis of “Zhou Rites” was during the political reform period and belonged to his later thoughts. At this time, Wang Anshi’s analysis of linking the king’s sacrificial fast with health and mind nourishment was based on the ideological trend of recognizing the ontology of Taoism. It is consistent with Wang Anshi’s conclusion that Wang Anshi’s thought has evolved with the reform as the boundary.

The content discussed above is actually mainly limited to the relationship between Wang Anshi and Taoism. Next, let’s take a look at the relationship between Wang Anshi and Taoism. Wang Anshi rarely touched on Taoist cultivation theory. Compared with Wang Anshi, Su Shi personally practiced many Taoist cultivation methods such as bigu, turtle breath, dragon, tiger, lead and mercury. Wang Anshi was mainly influenced by Taoism in terms of thought. Of course, Wang Anshi also participated in some Taoist activities, but this is not enough to prove his belief in Taoism and his adoption of cultivation methods. When he was serving as the general magistrate of Shuzhou in Qianshan, he and others held a fire and visited the ancient Shiniu Cave in Tianzhu Mountain at night. He wrote a poem: “The water has no center and turns around, and the mountains are colorful and surrounded. It is so deep and endless that I sit on the stone and forget to return.” Taoism has designated the world’s famous mountains as thirty-six caves and seventy-two blessed places, and Tianzhu Mountain as the fourteenth cave and fifty-seven blessed lands. “Tao Jing” says: “Si Ming Cave Mansion is in Qianshan. Siming, the god of heaven, governs Shuzhi Qianshan.” This shows that Tianzhu Mountain’s status in Taoism is unusual. Wang Anshi’s night tour of Tianzhu Mountain is certainly related to Taoism, but it does not prove how much Wang Anshi believes in Taoism. This folk activity is just an outing in the wild, not entirely a religious activity for believers.

As mentioned above, Wang Anshi’s relationship with Taoism is mainly reflected in his absorption of Taoist ideas, and his “On Rites and Music” reflects this ideological relationship between Wang Anshi and Taoism. In this article, Wang Anshi emphasized the relationship between maintaining health and preserving body shape and calming the mind and fulfilling one’s nature. He wrote: “Spirit is born from nature, nature is born from sincerity, sincerity is born from heart, heart is born from qi, and qi is born from shape. Shape is the foundation of life. Therefore, maintaining health lies in preserving shape, and filling shape lies in cultivating qi. Nourishment of Qi lies in tranquilizing the mind, tranquility lies in sincerity, nourishing sincerity lies in fulfilling one’s nature, and failing to fulfill one’s nature is not enough to nourish one’s health. Those who can fulfill one’s nature are those who nourish one’s health; those who do not nourish one’s health are not enough to fulfill one’s nature. Life and nature are interdependent, and ambition is The appearance and the inside are related to the Qi. The muddy nature covers the nature, and the muddy nature blocks the life. If the will is moved, the Qi will be moved, and the Qi will be moved the will. The former king knew this, and it is the etiquette of the nature of the world that harmonizes the world. It is the joy of nature. Ritual is the sutra of the world; music is the harmony of the world. Ritual and music are the gods of the former kings who nourish people. It is the way of rectifying people’s temperament and returning to righteous nature. Therefore, the ultimate gift of great ceremony is simple and simple. There is no text; the extreme of great happiness is easy and can be heard. Simple is the original intention of the ancestors to establish rituals and music.” In this article, he also said: “Keeping one’s health is based on benevolence, maintaining Qi is based on righteousness, and getting rid of emotions is to conquer the world. Nature, cultivating the spirit and attaining enlightenment can lead to the realm of saints.” This idea that maintaining health and maintaining Qi is conducive to self-cultivation and cultivation mainly comes from Taoism.

In short, Wang Anshi’s thoughts have evolved with the reform as the boundary, and there are obvious differences between before and after. Under the cover of this overall thought, his Taoist and Taoist thoughts naturally have different stages. Only by analyzing Wang Anshi’s thoughts according to this distinction can we get a reasonable and clear understanding of his Taoist thoughts.

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